By Jones and Bartlett Publishers
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Additional resources for 2011 Nurse's Drug Handbook
Mechanism of Action Inhibits action of alpha-amylase and alphaglucoside enzymes. Normally, alphaamylase hydrolyzes complex starches to oligosaccharides in the small intestine and alpha-glucoside hydrolyzes oligosaccharides, trisaccharides, and di-saccharides to glucose and other monosaccharides in the brush border of the small intestine. In diabetic patients, acarbose inhibits these actions and delays glucose absorption, reducing blood glucose level after meals. Contraindications Chronic intestinal disease, cirrhosis, colonic ulceration, conditions that may deteriorate because of increased gas formation in intestines, diabetic ketoacidosis, digestive or absorption disorders, history of bowel obstruction, hypersensitivity to acarbose, inflammatory bowel disease Interactions DRUGS calcium channel blockers, digestive enzymes (such as pancreatin), diuretics, estrogen, intestinal adsorbents (such as activated charcoal), isoniazid, nicotinic acid, oral contra- A 92381_Axxx_p0017-0122 22 6/1/10 10:05 PM Page 22 acebutolol hydrochloride ceptives, phenothiazines, phenytoin, sympathomimetics, thyroid hormones: Possibly decreased therapeutic effects of acarbose digoxin: Decreased serum level and therapeutic effects of digoxin insulin, sulfonylureas: Decreased insulin action, possibly increased risk of hypoglycemia Adverse Reactions CV: Edema GI: Abdominal distention and pain, diarrhea, flatulence, hepatitis, hepatotoxicity, ileus, jaundice SKIN: Erythema, exanthema, rash, urticaria Nursing Considerations Be aware that acarbose isn’t recommended for patients with significant renal dysfunction and a serum creatinine level above 2 mg/dl.
Warn patient not to take drug with alcohol or iron and to consult prescriber before taking it with any other drug. 92381_Axxx_p0017-0122 6/1/10 10:05 PM Page 29 acetylcysteine • Instruct patient to avoid hazardous activities during therapy. 29 kg in 3 ml/kg of diluent infused over 60 min, followed by 50 mg/kg in 7 ml/kg of diluent infused over 4 hr, followed by 100 mg/kg in 14 ml/kg of diluent infused over 16 hr. acetylcysteine Mechanism of Action Acetadote, Mucomyst, Mucosil Decreases viscosity of pulmonary secretions by breaking disulfide links that bind glycoproteins in mucus.
29 kg in 3 ml/kg of diluent infused over 60 min, followed by 50 mg/kg in 7 ml/kg of diluent infused over 4 hr, followed by 100 mg/kg in 14 ml/kg of diluent infused over 16 hr. acetylcysteine Mechanism of Action Acetadote, Mucomyst, Mucosil Decreases viscosity of pulmonary secretions by breaking disulfide links that bind glycoproteins in mucus. Reduces liver damage from acetaminophen overdose. Usually, acetaminophen’s toxic metabolites bind with glutathione in the liver, which detoxifies them. When acetaminophen overdose depletes glutathione stores, toxic metabolites bind with protein in liver cells, killing them.
2011 Nurse's Drug Handbook by Jones and Bartlett Publishers