By Christian V. Stevens(eds.)
Plant biomass is attracting expanding realization as a sustainable source for large-scale construction of renewable fuels and chemical compounds. in spite of the fact that, so as to effectively compete with petroleum, it can be crucial that biomass conversion approaches are designed to reduce bills and maximize yields. Advances in pretreatment know-how are severe on the way to advance high-yielding, cost-competitive routes to renewable fuels and chemicals.
Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass for organic and Chemical Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals provides a entire assessment of the presently on hand aqueous pretreatment applied sciences for cellulosic biomass, highlighting the basic chemistry and biology of every approach, key attributes and obstacles, and possibilities for destiny advances.
Topics lined include:
• The significance of biomass conversion to fuels
• The position of pretreatment in organic and chemical conversion of biomass
• Composition and constitution of biomass, and recalcitrance to conversion
• Fundamentals of biomass pretreatment at low, impartial and excessive pH
• Ionic liquid and organosolv pretreatments to fractionate biomass
• Comparative info for program of top pretreatments and impact of enzyme formulations
• Physical and chemical positive aspects of pretreated biomass
• Economics of pretreatment for organic processing
• Methods of research and enzymatic conversion of biomass streams
• Experimental pretreatment structures from multiwell plates to pilot plant operations
This entire reference booklet presents an authoritative resource of knowledge at the pretreatment of cellulosic biomass to assist these skilled within the box to entry the most up-tp-date details at the topic. it's going to even be necessary to these coming into the growing to be box of biomass conversion.
Chapter 1 creation (pages 1–15): Charles E. Wyman
Chapter 2 Cellulosic Biofuels: significance, Recalcitrance, and Pretreatment (pages 17–21): Lee Lynd and Mark Laser
Chapter three Plant mobile partitions: fundamentals of constitution, Chemistry, Accessibility and the effect on Conversion (pages 23–38): Brian H. Davison, Jerry Parks, Mark F. Davis and Bryon S. Donohoe
Chapter four organic Conversion of crops to Fuels and chemical compounds and the results of Inhibitors (pages 39–60): Eduardo Ximenes, Youngmi Kim and Michael R. Ladisch
Chapter five Catalytic concepts for changing Lignocellulosic Carbohydrates to Fuels and chemical substances (pages 61–102): Jesse Q. Bond, David Martin Alonso and James A. Dumesic
Chapter 6 basics of Biomass Pretreatment at Low pH (pages 103–128): Heather L. Trajano and Charles E. Wyman
Chapter 7 basics of Aqueous Pretreatment of Biomass (pages 129–143): Nathan S. Mosier
Chapter eight basics of Biomass Pretreatment at excessive pH (pages 145–167): Rocio Sierra Ramirez, Mark Holtzapple and Natalia Piamonte
Chapter nine Primer on Ammonia Fiber growth Pretreatment (pages 169–200): S. P. S. Chundawat, B. Bals, T. Campbell, L. Sousa, D. Gao, M. Jin, P. Eranki, R. Garlock, F. Teymouri, Venkatesh Balan and Bruce E. Dale
Chapter 10 basics of Biomass Pretreatment through Fractionation (pages 201–222): Poulomi Sannigrahi and Arthur J. Ragauskas
Chapter eleven Ionic Liquid Pretreatment: Mechanism, functionality, and demanding situations (pages 223–238): Seema Singh and Blake A. Simmons
Chapter 12 Comparative functionality of best Pretreatment applied sciences for organic Conversion of Corn Stover, Poplar wooden, and Switchgrass to Sugars (pages 239–259): Charles E. Wyman, Bruce E. Dale, Venkatesh Balan, Richard T. Elander, Mark T. Holtzapple, Rocio Sierra Ramirez, Michael R. Ladisch, Nathan S. Mosier, Y. Y. Lee, Rajesh Gupta, Steven R. Thomas, Bonnie R. Hames, Ryan Warner and Rajeev Kumar
Chapter thirteen results of Enzyme formula and Loadings on Conversion of Biomass Pretreated through best applied sciences (pages 261–279): Rajesh Gupta and Y. Y. Lee
Chapter 14 actual and Chemical positive aspects of Pretreated Biomass that impact Macro?/Micro?Accessibility and organic Processing (pages 281–310): Rajeev Kumar and Charles E. Wyman
Chapter 15 Economics of Pretreatment for organic Processing (pages 311–333): Ling Tao, Andy Aden and Richard T. Elander
Chapter sixteen growth within the Summative research of Biomass Feedstocks for Biofuels construction (pages 335–354): Foster A. Agblevor and Junia Pereira
Chapter 17 High?Throughput NIR research of Biomass Pretreatment Streams (pages 355–368): Bonnie R. Hames
Chapter 18 Plant Biomass Characterization: software of resolution? and Solid?State NMR Spectroscopy (pages 369–390): Yunqiao Pu, Bassem Hallac and Arthur J. Ragauskas
Chapter 19 Xylooligosaccharides construction, Quantification, and Characterization in Context of Lignocellulosic Biomass Pretreatment (pages 391–415): Qing Qing, Hongjia Li, Rajeev Kumar and Charles E. Wyman
Chapter 20 Experimental Pretreatment platforms from Laboratory to Pilot Scale (pages 417–450): Richard T. Elander
Chapter 21 Experimental Enzymatic Hydrolysis structures (pages 451–469): Todd Lloyd and Chaogang Liu
Chapter 22 High?Throughput Pretreatment and Hydrolysis structures for Screening Biomass Species in Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass (pages 471–488): Jaclyn DeMartini and Charles E. Wyman
Chapter 23 Laboratory Pretreatment platforms to appreciate Biomass Deconstruction (pages 489–521): Bin Yang and Melvin Tucker
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Extra resources for Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass for Biological and Chemical Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals
72. , Dale, B. et al. (2005) Features of promising technologies for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Bioresource Technology, 96 (6), 673–686. 73. B. H. (1987) Lignocellulose pretreatment: A comparison of wet and dry ball attrition. Biotechnology Letters, 9 (5), 365–368. 74. C. et al. (1981) Pretreatment of lignocellulosics to support cellulase production using Trichoderma reesei QM9414. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Symposium, 11, 47–65. 75. F. (1979) Influence of fine grinding on the hydrolysis of cellulosic materials – Acid vs.
We can therefore view these sugars as reactive intermediates that can be biologically converted into ethanol and other final products. A variety of acids including sulfuric, nitric, and hydrochloric have been applied to hydrolyze hemicellulose to its component sugars with yields of about 80–90% of theoretical or more, feasible in simple batch or co-current flow operations [41,42]. Dilute acids can also hydrolyze cellulose to glucose, but glucose yields are limited to about 50% of theoretical for practical operating conditions [2,43].
Chapters are also devoted to outlining fundamental features for pretreatments by AFEX (Chapter 9), biomass fractionation (Chapter 10), and ionic liquids (Chapter 11). Armed with this background, in Chapter 12 the reader is given a summary of data developed for application of leading thermochemical pretreatment technologies to corn stover, poplar wood, and switchgrass, with Chapter 13 providing insights into how enzyme formulations must be tailored to pretreatment type to realize high yields. Chapter 14 provides fundamental insights into how physical and chemical features of pretreated biomass impact sugar release.
Aqueous Pretreatment of Plant Biomass for Biological and Chemical Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals by Christian V. Stevens(eds.)