By Stephen J. Lee
Lee's publication takes an analytical method of quite a lot of themes in early sleek eu background, from the Renaissance to the French Revolution, exhibiting numerous equipment that may be used to provide a subject or argument in an essay or examination.
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Extra resources for Aspects of European History, 1494-1789 (University Paperbacks)
The organization and rule of the Jesuits proved to be more complex than those of Calvinism even though they affected only a few, those who voluntarily entered the Order. 4 The overall leader was the General of the Order, under the personal authority of the Pope, and the central institution was the General Congregation. The Society of Jesus was, therefore, a compromise; it reaffirmed the importance of the role of the religious order, which both Luther and Calvin had rejected, but it substituted worldly contact and semi-military discipline for the more extreme asceticism of monasticism.
2 Thus reform became more urgent because its delay seemed to have incurred a terrible divine reminder. The first major step was the appointment of a Reform Commission of Cardinals by Pope Paul III which reported in the Consilium directorum cardinalium de emendanda ecclesia (1537) that the major problem was the secularization of the papacy itself and that major change could be accomplished only from above. ‘You have taken the name of Paul. ’2 How could this be accomplished? The Papal Curia resisted the measures taken by Paul III in 1538 to end absenteeism and nepotism, and it became apparent that a major institutional development would be needed.
Again, the reasons and results were different. Calvinism was not exported as a deliberate policy but as part of a series of refugee movements from persecution in Europe. ASPECTS OF EUROPEAN HISTORY 1494–1789 29 The two main examples were the origins of the North American colonies in the early seventeenth century and the development of the Cape Colony in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. Puritans and Huguenots carried with them the basic ethos of Calvinism, including the doctrine of predestination which was adapted to the rigours of frontier societies and assumed a greater degree of harshness as a result.
Aspects of European History, 1494-1789 (University Paperbacks) by Stephen J. Lee