By Roger Collins (auth.)
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On the other hand, the elevation of Pippin was more than just the enthroning of yet another Merovingian, and it may have been necessary to find a new ritual to mark the dynastic break and to testify to the special status of the new king and his line. If so, it remains questionable as to whence the precedents for the use of unction for Pippin's elevation were drawn. If a borrowing from the practices of the defunct Visigothic kingdom be deemed unlikely, then Irish and papal origins have been suggested.
Likewise after 751, the see of Metz could expect to benefit from playing on its unique links to the new ruling house of Francia. It is notable that the evidence for the supposed marriage of a son of Arnulf to a daughter of Pippin I is to be found in what is essentially a Metz source, the Gesta Episcoporum Mettensium or 'Deeds of the Bishops of Metz', written by Paul the Deacon in the early 780s on the basis of information provided for him by archbishop Angilramn of Metz (d. 791). 7 Another source, possibly closer to the Carolingian house itself, is the Annales Mettenses Priores or 'Earlier Metz Annals', which despite their modern title were probably written c.
Whatever be thought of that, it does seem that under both the later Merovingians and the Carolingians state finance consisted of little more than the proceeds drawn from the exploitation of royal estates and certain customs dues. 88 The former Roman land taxes had mutated into the 20 Charlemagne practice of military obligation. This explains, not least, the limited nature of the Merovingian coinage, and its exceptional lack of reference to the monarchy. While a regular 'national' coinage, in which the authority of the ruler was declared by placing of his portrait, however schematic or idealised, and his titles on the obverse, or 'heads', side of the coins, was the product of a system in which tax and other payments were collected in precious metal, which had to be seen to conform to a fixed standard of both weight and fineness, most Merovingian coinages seem to have been local products, intended for limited regional commercial purposes.
Charlemagne by Roger Collins (auth.)